By Abhishek Rajan*, Nashik, Maharashtra
The milk that we drink everyday does not appear from thin air. A dedicated amount of feed and fodder is needed for cattle to survive and to produce milk. Thus, providing the right quantity of feed is a matter of concern for every cattle owner.
Unfortunately, India is facing an acute shortage of feed and fodder and its negative influence on the dairy economy is being discussed widely. If the deficit in quality fodder continues and if no efforts are directed at bridging this demand-supply gap, India may have to import milk by 2021, according to studies.
With an estimated increase in cattle population due to the growth in dairy farming and ban on cow slaughter, we will need increased production of fodder and restoration of common pastures to prevent livestock starvation.
The major challenges faced by the feed and fodder production industry are the fixed area under fodder production and decline in pasturelands. Another factor is the replacement of coarse cereal crops, one of the main sources of crop residues, by commercial crops.
Area under fodder production has remained static for the past four decades — around 4% of the Net Sown Area (NSA) — and common property land resources are declining annually, at the rate of 19 hectare per 1000.
Impact of bad monsoon
An exploration in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra shows the extent to which a natural adverse phenomenon such as drought can worsen the fodder situation. Kisan Bapad, a small farmer from Nashik's Lonarwadi village, requires 100kg of green feed and 35kg of dry fodder to feed his herd of five milch cattle, two draught cattle and four young stock on a daily basis. While he gets dry fodder from his own fields, he has to buy all the green feed from other farms. "Sourcing fodder is both a capital- and time-intensive job. The entire region has been witnessing weak monsoons in recent years, which has further compounded the acute scarcity of feed and fodder," Bapad told VillageSquare.in.
Earlier when the monsoons were good, the farmers had to procure green fodder for only eight months because the common grazing land of the village took care of requirements for the rest of the year. Bapad expressed concern over the shrinking pastures in his village, as well as others. Nonetheless, Lonarwadi village wasn't as severely affected by drought as Dindori taluk, about 50km away.
"Consecutive dry spells have not only destroyed our farm output but also affected the livestock badly due to chronic shortage of fodder and water," Babaji Ngalu, a small farmer from Dindori, told VillageSquare.in. Non-availability of fodder and water forced Ngalu to reduce his cattle herd by selling off a pair of bullocks and some young stock at throwaway prices.
His milch cows survived the drought with the help of private fodder camps set up in the neighbourhood. He also attributed the low price realisation of bullocks to the new anti-cattle slaughter legislation enacted by the Maharashtra government, which has caused a steep crash in prices, compounding the concerns of cattle owners.
The feeding resources of livestock are broadly classified into three components: crop residues, green fodder and concentrates. Crop residue is the biggest feeding resource for animals, contributing about 60% of the total dry matter (DM) availability. Green fodder and concentrates make up 30% and 10% respectively of the available DM.
According to feed computations of the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP) in 2013, 575 million metric tonnes (MT) of dry matter (DM) is generated every year from all the three resources. On an average, cattle weighing 350kg require around 7.5kg of DM every day for subsistence, without taking the nutritional need for enhanced yield into consideration.
According to the Livestock Census 2012, there are 205 million Adult Cattle Units (ACUs) in the country, estimated by standardising different livestock species such as cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep into a standard unit based on their weight. A whopping 560 million MT of DM is required for their subsistence.
The numbers indicate that resources are sufficient to feed the livestock population of the country. However, with the growth of dairy farming in the last few decades and lactating animals getting feed preference, a significant percentage of cattle including bulls and old cattle are likely to starve.
If the deficit in quality fodder continues and if no efforts are directed at bridging this demand-supply gap, India may have to import milk by 2021.
A majority of Indian states have the bare minimum or insufficient feeding resources for their cattle, as can be seen from the chart. Wide inter-state gaps are also clearly visible.
With rising passions overshadowing rationality, reinforced with newer laws in many states, cattle protectionism has gained pace. An implication of this movement would be an increase in the cattle population in the coming years. This leads us to the question: "Will we have enough feed resources for the future livestock population?"
The future estimation of dry matter (DM) availability is based on a study by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the International Food Policy Research Institute that estimated the crop production in 2030 in India; 612 million MT of DM is estimated to be available as crop residues and concentrates in 2030. Projecting green fodder availability was difficult because of lack of data and future estimates of area under fodder crops, forests and grazing land.
According to the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, between 1980 and 2011, DM availability from green fodder saw 15% growth, whereas DM availability from crop residues and concentrates doubled and tripled respectively. If we assume that area under fodder crops will increase from 4% to 5% of gross cropped area, with no decline in the area under pastures and forest, DM availability from green fodder will be 220 million MT in 2030. Thus we arrive at an estimate of about 832 million MT of DM from all the three resources, which will be enough to carry a livestock population of 300 million ACUs.
According to estimates by Indian Grasslands and Forest Research Institute (IGFRI), livestock population will grow at CAGR of 0.55%. At the said rate, livestock population will be 250 million ACUs in 2030. Considering the availability status of DM in 2030, we can say that feeding resources will be sufficient to carry the estimated livestock population of the country.
Left to starve
However, the ongoing cattle protection movement can change the equations by accelerating the growth rate of ACUs. In a situation of absolute ban on cattle slaughter in the country, number of ACUs will swell to 340 million. With a fodder stock to carry only 300 million ACUs, this surplus population of 40 million ACUs would be either fed by importing fodder or left to starve.
The government should increase fodder production and restore grasslands to ensure sufficient feed for future surplus cattle—this would be gau seva or cattle protection in the true sense.
Rapid explosion in cattle population could be a double whammy to the livestock economy, which is already grappling with acute fodder crisis. It would significantly dampen the growth of milk and meat industry.
With more focus on enhancing livestock productivity, inequity in fodder distribution may increase in future, leading to a larger population of starving livestock. Given that it is committed to implementing an absolute ban on cattle slaughter, the government should increase fodder production and restore grasslands to ensure sufficient feed for future surplus cattle—this would be gau seva or cattle protection in the true sense.
Abhishek Rajan is a researcher at the IWMI-Tata Program.
This article was first published on VillageSquare.in, a public-interest communications platform focused on rural India.
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