Women carrying enormous loads on their head remain a common sight in large swathes of the country, indicative of our gender insensitivity and skewed priorities.
By Sanjiv Phansalkar
I woke up at dawn as the train started slowing down before Rourkela in Odisha. I was on my way from Nagpur in 1996 to start work in the Bihar plateau. Peering outside the dust-covered glass window of my 2-tier AC compartment, I was surprised to see what appeared to be human forms running or walking quickly with some unwieldy stuff on their head.
As the town approached and the train slowed down near a level crossing, the light had become brighter. I saw more clearly. The human forms were women. There were dozens of them carrying large bundles of dried wood on their head, patiently waiting for the train to cross the gate for them to resume the journey.
Engineering institutions are perhaps blissfully ignorant of the need to innovate in this field to reduce the drudgery of women.
When I spoke about this later with a friend, he shrugged and said they were bringing fuel wood to be burnt in the city's numerous eateries and hotels. Each head load would fetch some ₹10, he said. And then, he went into a long diatribe about how thousands of such women cause damage to the environment by contributing to deforestation while we only blame the forest timber mafia.
Much later, in 2009, I was travelling in Nagaland. The journey was scenic, with views of mountain ranges and winding roads crisscrossed by gushing streams. It was made all the more picturesque with scores of gun-toting Naga men whom we crossed one at a time, each looking at our vehicle with interest. It was around 11 in the morning. Again numerous human forms were visible in the distance, moving on hills with unwieldy loads on their head and back.
The bushes along the road, numerous trees, the standing crops and the slight haze made it difficult to be sure whether they were men or women. But when the distance was bridged, it became clear that most of these forms were of middle-aged women with wrinkled faces and frail bodies. Reading my mind, my Naga colleague and escort said something like, "Our women work very hard gathering wood, roots and other stuff from our hillsides so that they can look after their sons and husbands." Sure, the sons and brothers and husbands need to be looked after so they can carry guns to shoot birds!
Not for men
More used to sights in Western India, I have many times seen women in villages carrying two or three pots of water on their head from a well, several hundred meters away from their homes. I have virtually never seen men doing this. This practice of women bringing water is culturally sanctioned with sentimental songs devoted to Lord Krishna about how he harassed milkmaids carrying water on their heads. And villagers perhaps imagine themselves to be his descendants.
Only last week I was travelling in rural parts of Kolhapur district. This is one of the most prosperous districts of the country, with its sugarcane farms irrigated by a huge network of canals. As you motor through the roads in the undulating plains of this district, you are amazed at the frequency at which even expensive cars cross or overtake you, leave alone the constant stream of bikes and tractors with laden trolleys.
In the evening, the traffic got compounded with these human forms again. The faces and much of their upper bodies were covered by the overhanging leaves of the sugarcane they carried. I counted 26 women carrying mammoth head loads of sugarcane, and also four men carrying these tied to their bikes on the pillion seat. In two places I saw men helping the women lift the head load to readjust it after which they sped away on bikes in the opposite direction. I gather the sugarcane tops are fed to dairy animals; later, the woman probably carriers milk on her head to the nearest milk collection centre.
Beasts of burden
For anyone travelling through rural India, women carrying water, their household washing, wood, fodder and at times baskets of dung on their head is an all too common sight. While our rural brothers are quite used to harnessing these delicate beasts of burden with miscellaneous stuff, it appears this sight is not at all familiar to our engineers or other lofty technology institutions. I am not sure if our medical fraternity has ever researched if women in rural areas have problems in their neck or back due to this practice of carrying loads on their head.
Engineering institutions are perhaps blissfully ignorant of the need to innovate in this field to reduce the drudgery of women. Well, almost. I know in one hallowed institution of learning, a student did an M Tech project designing a contraption using which the woman could optimise her capacity to carry head loads of water over steep and difficult paths in hilly parts of Thane district in Maharashtra. Mind you, it would reduce number of her trips for the same volume, but she still remained the carrier.
A drum to roll home water was designed and piloted by an American lady as she, unlike our men folk and our engineers, could actually empathise with women...
Then this year in villages in Yeotmal and Ambejogai in Maharashtra, I saw the very first contraption that eliminates the head load, at least for water. It was not a pump and pipeline, though that of course would be ideal. But neither place has assured electricity. This was a simple rolling drum made out of tough HDPE or similar plastic material. The women could fill the drum with water at the well and roll it home.
Costing about ₹2000, the drum was attracting much consumer resistance for the price. The men naturally thought that such gadgets would make their wives lazy. I asked my colleague about it and he told me that the drum was designed and piloted by an American lady as she, unlike our men folk and our engineers, could actually empathise with women suffering under the load.
But naturally our engineers should work to send drones to deliver pizzas in 20 minutes from the order and not worry about ways of addressing the problems of rural women. After all, the country has to be a global player. The drone developer will perhaps go to the USA for a MS and PhD while the lady who innovates a drum roller comes from the USA to solve our problems. This is the new age circular migration of labour.
Why are we so gender insensitive in this country?
Sanjiv Phansalkar is Programme Director at Tata Trusts. He was earlier a faculty member at the Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA). Phansalkar is a fellow of the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Ahmedabad.
This article was first published on VillageSquare.in, a public-interest communications platform focused on rural India.