Odds are that 2016 is already set to be yet another "hottest year on record". This week Ahmedabad, in Western India, broke a hundred-year record with reported maximum temperatures of 46.9°C (116.4°F). Across the seas, the White House designated the week of May 23-27, as "Extreme Heat Week". The dangerous health effects of globally rising temperatures and climate change are becoming very real.
In India, cities have been feeling the heat since early summer. The Indian Meteorological Department has warned of extreme heat wave conditions in central and north India. Taking action, three regions in 10 cities, covering 10 million people, are preparing and responding to sweltering temperatures and related health impacts, including heat stroke and death. Nine Indian cities, including Bhubaneswar and Nagpur have joined Ahmedabad, in releasing Heat Action Plans -- early warning systems focused on increased community action, inter-agency coordination and capacity-building among medical professionals.
Workers who perform physical labour outdoors during the hottest hours of the day are particularly vulnerable to the health impacts of extreme heat.
This year, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and partners -- the Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar (IIPH-G), University of Washington and others -- are working with the city of Ahmedabad to further strengthen the evidence based case for an occupationally vulnerable group -- traffic officers -- who stand on busy traffic junctions daily and are exposed to extreme heat and air pollution in a harsh working environment.
In 2013, Ahmedabad became the first South Asian city to implement the early warning system based on a comprehensive system of forecasting, building community awareness and capacity-building of the medical infrastructure in the city. Led by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, this effort was supported by knowledge partners, NRDC, IIPH-G, Climate Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) and other national and international scientific organizations. Building on the science that formed the basis for the Heat Action Plan, public health researchers from IIPH G and NRDC, together with key experts, are now collaborating with the city's traffic police department to strengthen the understanding of the health effects of extreme heat. The results of this first-of-its-kind analysis will strengthen interventions that help protect groups that are especially vulnerable to extreme heat, such as those who work outdoors.
Traffic police personnel have been known to have suffered the deadly consequences of prolonged heat exposure in previous years.
Workers, such as street vendors, traffic police personnel, construction and agricultural labourers, who perform physical labour outdoors during the hottest hours of the day are particularly vulnerable to the health impacts of extreme heat, according to research conducted by NRDC-IIPH-G. The combination of physical work and heat exposure makes them particularly susceptible. During the heat season in 2016 i.e., April to June 2016, IIPH-G and NRDC are focusing research on one such group of outdoor workers - the traffic police. Traffic police personnel are responsible for managing busy roads and heavy traffic on a daily basis in Ahmedabad. The nature of their work exposes them to heat, pollutants and noise from the vehicles that they manage. Traffic police personnel have been known to have suffered the deadly consequences of prolonged heat exposure in previous years. On-duty mortality and morbidity indicate that traffic junctions are high heat-stress locations, especially during the peak of summer in Ahmedabad.
A pilot study on Ahmedabad traffic police was carried out at the end of the summer in 2015. The pilot study served as the backdrop against which this year's cohort study is being conducted, to get a sense of the study setting and preliminary results. As part of this year's two-month research, efforts to quantify the effects of occupational heat exposure on traffic police workers during the summer months is underway. During the last few weeks, IIPH-G research assistants Dr. Priya Dutta and Dr. Abhiyant Tiwari, Sathish LM and NRDC's Nehmat Kaur have conducted field visits to distribute temperature-measuring data loggers at close to 40 traffic junctions in Ahmedabad.
Ahmedabad traffic police officer with temperature data logger. Photo by Nehmat Kaur
This research will allow the teams to study the relation between personal occupational heat exposure during work hours and the health indicators observed in the participants.
The traffic officers in the study will wear the data loggers during their hours of duty, for a total of two months. Together with a periodic survey on health indicators, this research will allow the teams to study the relation between personal occupational heat exposure during work hours and the health indicators observed in the participants. These findings could inform recommendations for practical interventions to better protect them from extreme conditions and will support the department to better understand the effects of environmental and occupational stresses on these personnel.
Air Pollution Study
In a separate, but related occupational health study, the NRDC - IIPH research team is collaborating with the Sri Ramachandra University (SRU) to conduct an air pollution exposure study with the traffic police. Traffic policemen spend a significant amount of time manning heavy traffic junctions and are forced to breathe air filled with pollutants including particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). This extended exposure can lead to chronic respiratory and cardiovascular health effects. To understand the nature and health impact of air pollution exposure in traffic policemen, the study aims to measure personal PM and CO exposure levels for 12 traffic policemen in a continuous 48-hour period. This includes their work settings outdoors as well as their home environments.
The study was kicked off, earlier this week, with the NRDC-IIPHG-SRU teams distributing personal monitors to traffic policemen in four locations across Ahmedabad. These personal monitors were fitted into backpacks, making them convenient for the study participants to wear while on duty. The team administered questionnaires to get a deeper understanding of the settings in which the traffic police live and operate, and establish a baseline.
Ahmedabad traffic officer with a backpack air monitor. Photo by Nehmat Kaur
Based on the results, the city of Ahmedabad can take concrete measures that will help mitigate and alleviate dangerous occupational stressors such as heat and air pollution.
The aim of these scientific studies is to quantify the level of occupational and environmental stressors that this vulnerable group of traffic police officers serving the city are exposed to and build the evidence for policy action. Based on the results, the city of Ahmedabad can take concrete measures that will help mitigate and alleviate dangerous occupational stressors such as heat and air pollution. The traffic police department is taking significant measures and has been active in efforts to improve the health and working conditions of the policemen. For example, traffic police personnel have been provided with special cooling jackets during the heat wave period. The department has also participated in a heat-sensitization workshop on heat-related precautions and care, installed drinking water and toilet facilities at various sites around the city, and has taken other administrative measures as part of the city's Heat Action Plan.
Heat waves are becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change. Ahmedabad is reeling under extreme temperatures. It has also been reported as one of India's top most polluted cities. Such conditions can make it difficult for the human body to cope, especially for groups such as the traffic police that are particularly vulnerable. Policy decisions based on supportive evidence are necessary to safeguard such vulnerable groups from extreme health effects of rising temperatures and rising pollution.
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