MOSCOW - President Vladimir Putin unveiled an array of new nuclear weapons on Thursday, in one of his most bellicose speeches in years, saying they could hit almost any point in the world and evade a U.S.-built missile shield.
Putin was speaking ahead of an election on March 18 that polls indicate he should win easily. He said a nuclear attack on any of Moscow's allies would be regarded as an attack on Russia itself and draw an immediate response.
It was unclear if he had a particular Russian ally, such as Syria, in mind, but his comments looked like a warning to Washington not to use tactical battlefield nuclear weapons.
Putin has often used militaristic rhetoric to mobilise support and buttress his narrative that Russia is under siege from the West. His 2014 annexation of Ukraine's Crimea boosted his ratings to a record high and he has cast his military intervention in Syria as a proud moment for Moscow.
On Thursday, he backed his rhetoric with video clips of some of the new missiles he was talking about, which were projected onto a giant screen behind him at the conference hall in central Moscow where he was addressing Russia's political elite.
"They have not succeeded in holding Russia back," said Putin, referring to the West, which he said had ignored Moscow in the past, but would now have to sit up and listen.
"Now they need to take account of a new reality and understand that everything I have said today is not a bluff."
Among the new weapons that Putin said were either in development or ready: a new intercontinental ballistic missile "with a practically unlimited range" able to attack via the North and South Poles and bypass any missile defence systems.
Putin also spoke of a small nuclear-powered engine that could be fitted to what he said were low-flying highly-manoeuvrable cruise missiles, giving them a practically unlimited range.
The new engine meant Russia was able to make a new type of weapon -- nuclear missiles powered by nuclear rather than conventional fuel.
"Nothing like it in the world exists," Putin told the audience. "At some point it will probably appear (elsewhere) but by that time our guys will have devised something else."
Other new super weapons he listed included underwater nuclear drones, a supersonic weapon and a laser weapon.
In one of his video clip demos, a weapon appeared to be hovering over what looked like a map of the state of Florida.
The audience, made up of Russian lawmakers and other leading figures, frequently stood up and applauded his presentation, which culminated with the Russian national anthem being played.
Earlier in the speech, he had struck a very different tone, ordering officials to halve the number of Russians living in poverty by sharply boosting social and infrastructure spending in an obvious pre-election pitch to voters.
NATO MEASURES "USELESS"
Putin, who has dominated his country's political landscape for the last 18 years, said the technological advances meant that NATO's build-up on Russia's borders and the roll-out of a U.S. anti-missile system would be rendered useless.
"I hope that everything that was said today will sober up any potential aggressor," said Putin.
"Unfriendly steps towards Russia such as the deployment of the (U.S.) anti-missile system and of NATO infrastructure nearer our borders and such like, from a military point of view, will become ineffective."
Steps to contain Russia would also become unjustifiably expensive and pointless, he forecast.
Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said in a statement after the speech that the new weapons Putin had unveiled meant that NATO's missile defence shield, in Poland, Romania and Alaska and planned elements in South Korea and Japan was like an umbrella that was full of holes.
"I don't know why they would now buy such an 'umbrella,'" Shoigu said, referring to Seoul and Tokyo.
NATO declined immediate comment.
One senior Western defence official who declined to be named because of the matter's sensitivity said he doubted Putin's assertion that Russia had come up with a new missile that could reach almost any point in the world without being intercepted
"That would be a stealth missile," said the official.
"I have never heard of one. Russia is not a competitor in terms of its technological armaments development. They won't have the access to many of the hi-tech systems they need because of Western sanctions. This may be propaganda."
Douglas Barrie, a senior fellow for military aerospace at the IISS think-tank in London, said he too was sceptical about some of Putin's statements.