Human-elephant conflict may only be mitigated through population management. In India, elephant populations are managed through translocation and capture of wild elephants for captivity. While some translocated elephants return to the site of conflict, others may cause trouble in their new locations. Capturing elephants for captivity is a contentious issue as it may involve cruel methods like confinement, starvation and the use of brutal force. In South Africa, a novel approach called immunocontraception has been successfully used to manage populations of wild elephants.