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Supporters of this unconventional initiative to bring women into the workforce believe these cities represent a huge step forward for Saudi women. However, such cities only reinforce oppressive gender norms because they offer limited career paths and perpetuate segregation. Furthermore, the progress being made on these cities is sparsely and ambiguously documented, suggesting development is slow. Nevertheless, recent reforms in Saudi government and new changes in the private sector suggest Saudi Arabia is indeed experiencing social change, albeit slow and tedious.
The rigidity of the Indian legislature and judiciary's stance on marital rape stems from cultural expectations of the role of women, traditional beliefs about the purpose of sex, and existing laws that fail to acknowledge and criminalise marital rape.